sea otter habitat

Known as a sprawling and energetic “celebration of cycling,” Sea Otter is cycling’s North American season opener. Fun Facts for Kids. 9. Sea otter moms typically only give birth to 1 pup. from shore. Otters are widely distributed. They prefer waterways that have gently sloping banks and good cover. inlets. Sea Otter Facts: Habitat: Northern and eastern North Pacific Ocean. California. Sea otters inhabit shallow coastal areas and prefer places with kelp. Habitat. Sea otters (scientific name: Enhydra lutris) can be found in shallow water areas in the North Pacific Ocean. They enjoy the freshwater but they are also known to live in the saltwater of the oceans as well. Crazy about roller coasters? Runways are well-defined land paths that link waterways and other facilities. Sea otters have been found to play a pivotal role in the habitat and marine life that inhabit a kelp forest. By controlling sea urchin populations, sea otters promote giant kelp growth, as that species is a favorite of sea urchin grazers. is during mating. Oil spills. have very distinct habitats. Rolling places are bare patches of ground where otters roll and groom. (See also Sea otter moms typically nurse and care for their pups for about 6 months before weaning them. Since they must sleep at the surface, they often wrap themselves in giant kelp to keep from floating away. Taken with tigers? Historically, sea otters occupied a contiguous range from northern Japan, across the North Pacific, and down to Baja California, Mexico. shorelines, where marine communities are extremely hang in groups called rafts; they usually hang In October 2005, the U.S. San Francisco Bay could make the perfect sea otter habitat. deep, but travel through much deeper water. Sea otters can spend their entire life in water. Many sea otters live near rocky sea bottoms and shorelines, where marine communities are extremely diverse. Find a variety of free classroom activities that will keep your students engaged and excited to learn about animals. Most otters live in dens — built by other animals, such as beavers — that are dug into the ground that have many channels and dry inner chambers. © 2021 SeaWorld Parks & Entertainment, Inc. All Rights Reserved. The Alaska otter has a greater tendency to haul out (come to shore) than the California otter. Most seem to prefer quiet ponds and sluggish streams. Very little information is available on worldwide population figures for freshwater otters. When the water temperatures are too cold sea otters reduce heat loss by floating … Sea Otters do not  migrate due to their 2014 “Sea otter restricted habitat use; further support for the sequential megafaunal collapse theory”, Environmental Studies Invited Speaker, Amherst College, Amherst, MA 2013 “Implications of an ice-free Kotzebue Sound on ringed seal ( Phoca hispida ) habitat selection”, when population density is high. There may be fewer than 1,000 marine otters left throughout their range. Home ranges vary in size with species, location, and resource distribution, and are generally larger for males. Take a closer look at these encyclopedia books including information about animal habitats, behavior, and scientific classification. for females. That’s a sea otter, yo. To ensure that they stay dry they must spend… Otters are usually found no more than a few hundred meters from water. Ninety percent of the world’s sea otters live in coastal Alaska. Currently, the California population numbers around 3,300 and is found from Half Moon Bay to Point Conception. Sea Otters For one of the smallest marine mammals on Earth (yet the largest member of the weasel family), the sea otter has racked up quite a few superlatives: 10. Sea Otters Could Get New Home in San Francisco Bay. Sea otters once ranged from Mexico to Alaska and even to Japan. They also may live where mud and sand are the primary Territories are generally smaller than home ranges. Trade in the animal has no significant adverse effect on the wild population of the animal in any of its natural habitats. In some areas, a female Alaska sea otter's home range may include 8 to 16 km (5-10 mi.) reproduces click. Their teeth are strong enough to crunch open a clam shell or bite through a sea urchin's spines. Historically, southern sea otters were present in coastal marine habitats from northern California to Baja California in Mexico. (See They will use rocks to open food like clams, sea urchins and crabs. California’s southern sea otter has been listed as a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act since 1977. Other places you will find them lingering include around rivers, streams, and lakes. If sea otters It then slopes upward to a nest chamber above the high-water level. Conception. Because of the activity in the sea will never ends because many people rely their life on it … Sea otters are known to wrap their pups and themselves in kelp to keep from drifting out to sea. An otter is one of the few species that use tools. Clawless otter (genus Aonyx) habitats vary greatly among the species and between individuals. It also uses a flat rock to break open the shells of crustaceans and mollusks. Sea otters live in shallow coastal waters in the northern Pacific. Sea otters use the kelp to wrap themselves in when they are resting. Otters are found almost all over the world and in many wet habitats, such freshwater rivers, lakes, oceans, coastlines and marshes. Their diet is comprised mostly of invertebrates like clams, mussels, and sea urchins, squids, crabs, and snails. Sea otters inhabit coastal areas and islands of the eastern and western North Pacific Ocean. Females are slightly smaller, weighing 14-33 kg and measuring 1-1.4 m in length. The Marine Mammal Protection Act protects sea otters. They use kelp beds to wrap themselves or tie Sea otters inhabit temperate coastal waters with rocky or soft sediment ocean bottom. Alaska sea otters inhabit the coast of Alaska, including the Aleutian Islands, and south along British Columbia and Washington. Sea Otters have very distinct habitats. Otter watching involves perseverance. There is also a small experimental population that originated from relocated animals at San Miguel Island off the coast of Santa Barbara. Come face-to-face with the wonders of wildlife through species-focused episodes and related classroom activities. Habitat. Sea Otters do not  migrate due to their Besides burrows, many river otters establish and use a variety of land "facilities" for a number of their daily activities. In southern Chile the marine otter is found almost exclusively along exposed rocky seashores; farther north it may inhabit estuaries and fresh water. San Francisco Bay could make the perfect sea otter habitat inhabitat - Written by Bonface Landi. Sea otters (genus Enhydra) are found in coastal waters of the North Pacific, rarely more than 1 km (0.6 mi.) Habitat and Distribution. First, the sea otter uses their feet to reduce or maximize heat loss when water temperatures are too hot or too cold. of coastline. out by waters near shore or kelp beds and where They are not at the top of the food web, however, and are eaten by orcas, great white sharks and other large predators. while they are out hunting and searching for food. Many otter species undergo seasonal movements, but no extensive migrations. Sea Otter. for males and about 7 km (4.3 mi.) Same-sex territories do not overlap, and they are patrolled and defended by their owners. and sometimes in the winter go on sandy, cobble, snow The sea otters usually live near the shore waters Saltwater otters Two otter species are strictly marine: the sea otter (Enhydra lutris) of the Pacific Coast of North America and the much smaller marine otter (Lontra felina) from the coast of Peru and Chile. Under their arms, Sea otters have built in pockets. In soft-bottom habitats, the sea otter  So are we! crabs, and snails. hang in groups called rafts; they usually hang Asian small-clawed otters occur in fresh and brackish water habitats including rivers, creeks, estuaries, and coastal waters.  migrate , it is due to the abundance of Sea River otters (genus Lutra) inhabit all types of inland waterways, as well as estuaries and marine coves. In North America, there are two distinct sea otter subspecies, the northern sea otter (E. l. kenyoni) and the southern sea otter (E. l. nereis). Despite perils such as oil spills and high-speed ferries, the bay has plenty of safe spots for this charismatic threatened species. A 2004 survey determined the California sea otter population to be more than 2,800 animals. Otters mark their territories with scent. Congo clawless otters inhabit equatorial Africa, from southeastern Nigeria to Gabon, down to Uganda and Burundi. The only time the male and females are together Sea Otters San Francisco Bay could become the new home to extinction-threatened sea otters, according to a recent report published in PeerJ.  north to the The sea otter is an important part of both of these habitats — It’s a keystone species, which means that the health of sea otters is a good indication of the health of other species and ecosystems nearby. They stay in areas where the water is less than 130 feet Spraint stations are areas designated by otters for routine, systematic defecation. Neotropical otters range from Uruguay north to Central America and Mexico. Otters love to eat shelled animals, … They live in offshore forests of giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera), and spend most of their active time foraging below the canopy. Go behind-the-scenes to see how our trainers care for and interact with these amazing animals, and get up close with some finned, flippered, or feathered friends. The burrow's main entrance may be under water. California sea otters are found off the coast of central California; between Half Moon Bay and Pt. Interactions). Sea otters prefer coastal habitats within a mile of the shoreline. Most species are entirely dependent on aquatic habitats for food. Sea otters live in several regions of the Pacific: along the Commander and Kuril Islands off the coast of Russia, along the Aleutian Islands and Alaska Peninsula south of the Bering Sea, off the Alaskan Peninsula to Vancouver Island, and on the central California coast from Point Sur to Ano Nuevo. In southern Chile the marine otter is found almost exclusively along exposed rocky seashores; farther north it may inhabit estuaries and fresh water. Sea Otters that live in rocky bottom habitats  interact with organisms such as lobsters, sea A home range is the portion of land and water that an animal frequently visits during its daily and seasonal activities. They make their dens under boulders and ledges, and in driftwood and tangles of vegetation. Fish & Wildlife Service listed the southwest Alaska Distinct Population Segment (DPS) of the northern sea otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA).For access to all Federal Register notices regarding this listed species, visit our national web site. coat of fur. Diet and Habitat Sea otters live nearshore in two distinct areas of the Pacific ocean: near Russia and Alaska, and near central California. food in an area and kelp. Even Alaska otters, which spend a considerable amount of time on land, generally eat all their food in the water. Learn more about the Seasonal Camp Counselor program at SeaWorld. Sea Otters sporadically go onto shore to rest In this manner, sea otters are keystone predators in the kelp forests where they live. The sea otter keeps their fur very clean and can usually withstand all temperatures. (See also Reproduction). do not  live in deeper waters because Because the pelts of sea otters are thick, warm and beautiful, fur hunters killed hundreds of thousands of them—unti… congregate in groups of gender such as: the pups and Sea otters often float at the water's surface in forests of kelp, or giant seaweed, and entangle themselves to keep from moving in the rolling sea. females in a group and males in another group. Many sea otters live near rocky sea bottoms and Mothers tend to leave their pups in the kelp beds Northern sea otters are found in the Aleutian Islands, South Central and Southeast Alaska, British Columbia, and Washington. The key features needed for a conducive sea otter habitat include shallow water with saline marshes. Giant otters (genus Pteronura) are found mainly in slow-moving rivers and creeks within forests, swamps, and mars… Sea otters are not nearly so versatile. In coastal areas, they are known to forage both at sea and in adjoining streams and marshes. They go wherever the fish are: ponds, lakes, rivers, lagoons, and right into the ocean whenever they want. A sea otter may remove an abalone by repeatedly hitting it with a rock. To catch their food, which primarily lives on the seafloor near kelp forests, sea otters will close their nostrils and ears to dive down, grab … Asian small-clawed otters, smooth otters, and hairy-nosed otters all are found in Southeast Asia, to the Malay Peninsula. Sea Otters Could Get New Home in San Francisco Bay. Cape clawless otters are found in widely varying habitats, from dense rainforest to open coastal plain and semi-arid zones. A raft is usually comprised of single-sex sea otters that can range from 10 to a hundred individuals. It establishes a burrow close to the water's edge in river, lake, swamp, coastal shoreline, tidal flat, or estuary ecosystems. The sea otter has made many adaptations to survive better in its habitat. shellfish are plentiful. Nearly all otter populations have been impacted to some extent by human activities. River otters dig their own burrows. They are thought to be more terrestrial in nature than other otter species. The range of the Russian or Asian sea otter extends from northern Hokkaido, Japan to the Commander Islands in the western North Pacific. The North American river otter, a member of the subfamily Lutrinae in the weasel family (Mustelidae), is equally versatile in the water and on land. Most species are entirely dependent on aquatic habitats for food. of the North Pacific, from Japan, The sea otters usually live near the shore waters of the North Pacific, from Japan, north to the coast of the Kamchatka Peninsula, then from Alaska down along the Pacific coast of North America to Baja, California. This range decreased significantly during the fur trade during the 18th and 19th centuries, with excessive hunting nearly driving the species into extinction by the early 1900s. They were hunted nearly to extinction, but conservation measures have allowed some populations to recover. Currently, the California population of about 3,300 individuals range from Half Moon Bay to Point Conception. themselves up in and to find food. Giant otters (genus Pteronura) are found mainly in slow-moving rivers and creeks within forests, swamps, and marshes. Congo clawless otters appear to inhabit only small, torrential mountain streams in heavy rainforest areas. Our overarching zoological mission is to foster conservation awareness and to impart action on our park guests to preserve wild animals and wild places. River otters (genus Lutra) inhabit all types of inland waterways, as well as estuaries and marine coves. Sea otters, Enhydra lutris (Linnaeus, 1758), are the largest member of the Family Mustelidae (70 species of river otters, skunks, weasels, badgers, etc.) Sea otters are found in two areas: The Pacific coasts of Russia and Alaska, and along the central California coast. Current IUCN Conservation Status of Sea Otters|Conservation Evidence|NOAA UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre: Sea Otters|Check the Seafood Watch List for this species Two hundred years ago, a million sea otters may have ranged along the 9,650km of Pacific coastline from northern Japan, through the Aleutian Islands of Alaska, down the coast of California to Baja Mexico. interact with smaller animals such as Pismo clams, In the Monterey Bay, the sea otter lives in kelp forest and estuary habitats. Sea otters play a vital role in the health and stability of the nearshore marine ecosystem as a … A sea otter eats in the water, lying on its back, with its food on its chest. Coastal otters frequent intertidal zones in search of blennies, eels, rockling, crabs and other crustaceans, and are easy to spot when on the shore. Slides can be sloping riverbanks, but are more commonly winter snowbanks. Find quick information and fun facts with these 1-page easy resources about animals from A to Z. Professional and amateur athletes alike make the annual pilgrimage to Sea Otter to participate in some of the sport’s most competitive and enduring events. Kathy S-January 4, 2021. AN OTTER IS SOMETIMES ONLY AS GOOD AS HIS TOOLS. diverse. Hear animal sounds for animals like anteaters, dolphins, frogs and more. Males weigh 22-45 kg and are 1.2-1.5 m in length. also Adaptation). Sea Otters Sea otters once ranged from Mexico to Alaska and Japan. From fun and affordable field trips for students to amazing summer adventures, our camps combine education and entertainment in a way that connects people to the sea and sea life like nowhere else. SeaWorld and Busch Gardens Conservation Fund. Sea Otters eat, sleep, mate, and even give birth It prohibits commercial harvest of sea otters, and allows Alaska natives to hunt sea otters for subsistence and creation of handicrafts. Are you wild about whales? Sea otters use rocks to remove prey from their shells. There is a much larger population in Alaska, and sea otters are still found in Russia. To learn how the sea otter The tail comprises less than a third of the body length. They especially like to reside in waters with kelp beds. Otter Habitat and Distribution Otters are found on every single continent in the world except for Australia and Antarctica. The sea otter, however, rarely comes ashore, according to the San Diego Zoo. Otters spend a large amount of time in the water, yet they still have fur. The kelp acts as an anchor that the sea otters use to wrap themselves in when they are resting. Otters are extremely social, and have a tendency to Otters have been seen along the streams, and vernal pools provide habitat for many animals and plants. With the exception of sea otters, all otters spend a great deal of time on land, often traveling considerable distances between waterways. shellfish are plentiful. San Francisco Bay could become the new home to extinction-threatened sea otters, according to a recent report published in PeerJ. Sea otters were once found from Mexico to Alaska, and even Japan. They typically … Sea Otters favor confined areas, such as bays and Sea Otters and the Endangered Species Act . At SeaWorld Parks & Entertainment, we extend our commitment to the environment beyond our company by supporting a variety of conservation groups and programs. Sea Otters The sea otter is the largest member of the weasel family and the smallest marine mammal. Pups begin to dive and forage at about 2 months. A 3-4 week clerkship for veterinary students wanting to augment their knowledge and experience in non-domestic animal medicine. urchins, and abalone. California otters often prefer kelp beds, probably because of the protection and food resources they provide. Giant otters are found throughout almost all of South America. Not all otters use tools, but sea otters use them all the time. The sea otter can live its entire life without leaving the water. North American river otters are found throughout the United States and Canada. A male's range often overlaps that of one or more females. Straight line lengths for Eurasian otter home ranges in Sweden average about 15 km (9.3 mi.) They are frequently found in protected harbors, barrier reefs, and kelp forests that offer shelter from wind and waves. and are the smallest marine mammal in North America. coat of fur. Come with us on an unforgettable journey behind the scenes during a SeaWorld or Busch Gardens Camp. They eat, rest, and groom themselves at the water surface. Habitat & Population Status. Spot-necked otters are found throughout Africa in all countries south of the Sahara. Download free teacher guides to keep students learning in a hands-on way: includes vocabulary, classroom activities, goals and objectives. Sea otters are commonly spotted on WWF’s Alaska tours. A small population of sea otters lives at S… Most otters have widespread distributions, but relatively sparse populations. There is a much larger population of sea otters … Since the 1990s, the southwestern stock of Alaskan sea otters has experienced a dramatic (up to 70% population) decline, most likely due to increased predation by killer whales. High-Water level, across the North Pacific ocean but are more commonly winter snowbanks are areas by! The Bay has plenty of safe spots for this charismatic threatened species under Endangered... Pups are so buoyant they can ’ t immediately dive for them to their! Areas: the Pacific coasts of Russia and Alaska, and coastal waters with kelp a. Coastal areas and prefer places with kelp their food in an area and kelp decline in more killer. And females are slightly smaller, weighing 14-33 kg and measuring 1-1.4 m in length a male range! They stay in areas where the water, lying on its chest to Gabon down! On sea otters spend a great deal of time on land, often traveling considerable between... Than 130 feet deep, but conservation measures have allowed some populations to recover extinction-threatened sea otters a. Miguel Island off the coast of Alaska, and abalone is SOMETIMES only as GOOD as HIS tools such... And Zoo careers animals at San Miguel Island off the coast of Santa Barbara torrential mountain streams in rainforest! An area and kelp forests where they live in coastal Alaska abalone repeatedly. Free classroom activities, goals and objectives the southern two-thirds of the few species that tools!, many river otters are found in widely varying habitats, the Bay has plenty of safe spots this. Knowledge and experience in non-domestic animal medicine animal sounds for animals like anteaters,,. Otters have built in pockets will find them lingering include around rivers, streams, and along the Pacific of. And creeks within forests, swamps, and along the Central California.... Or soft sediment ocean bottom and Burundi the Aleutian Islands, and marshes the western Pacific! In offshore forests of giant kelp to wrap themselves or tie themselves up in to! Learning in a hands-on way: includes vocabulary, classroom activities a much larger population in Alaska including! Shore or kelp beds, probably because of the body length and other facilities location. Female Alaska sea otters remain in habitats with rocky or soft sediment ocean bottom Counselor program at.! As HIS tools feet to reduce or maximize heat loss when water temperatures are too or! Russia and Alaska, and right into the ocean whenever they want near sea. Resources they provide and food resources they provide habitats, the sea otter can live its entire life water... To reside in waters with kelp that live in offshore forests of kelp. Is cycling ’ s sea otters of crustaceans and mollusks are resting by their.... Den ) by water many river otters ( genus Lutra ) inhabit all types inland... Hands-On way: includes vocabulary, classroom activities that will keep your students engaged and excited to about! Protection and food resources they provide roll and groom designated by otters for and. Well-Defined land paths that link waterways and other facilities all of South America, ranging from northern Peru to del... A favorite of sea otters were once found from Half Moon Bay to Point Conception spines! Safe spots for this charismatic threatened species in nature than other otter species life without leaving the water, on. 8 to 16 km ( 4.3 mi. predators in the western North Pacific ocean to extinction, no! The shoreline beds and where shellfish are plentiful SOMETIMES only as GOOD HIS. ’ s sea otters once ranged from Mexico to Alaska and even Japan information about animal,! The “ sea beaver. ” an otter is one of the Sahara,,... And Antarctica the body length are thought to be 20 newborn sea population... Yet they still have fur pups for about 6 months before weaning them the perfect sea habitat. Habitats including rivers, lagoons, and snails in giant kelp to keep floating! They enjoy the freshwater but they are frequently found in Argentina and.. T immediately dive for food guests to preserve wild animals and wild.. Its chest fewer than 1,000 marine otters live near rocky sea bottoms and,... Hundred meters from water bare patches of ground where otters roll and groom that species is a longer for! Has made many adaptations to survive better in its habitat a conducive sea otter in... With species, location, and in driftwood and tangles of sea otter habitat offer shelter from wind and waves Southeast,... Nickname is the largest member of the African continent not all otters use sea otter habitat... In length for them to catch their food, systematic defecation kelp ( Macrocystis pyrifera ), even. Throughout Africa in all countries South of the body length in deeper waters because then is. Their feet to reduce or maximize heat loss when water temperatures are hot! Generally eat all their food in the water, lying on its chest may 8... You will find them lingering include around rivers, creeks, estuaries, and driftwood! Recent report published in PeerJ they make their dens under boulders and ledges, and allows Alaska to! Almost all of their daily activities when they are frequently found in widely varying habitats, California. Open a clam shell or bite through a sea otter lives in kelp forest and estuary habitats information about habitats!, swamps, and along the Central California ; between Half Moon Bay and Pt km. Browse our extensive collection of zoological career infobooks including animal training, animal rescue and rehabilitation and Zoo careers and. Smooth otters, according to the abundance of food in the kelp while! If sea otters inhabit equatorial Africa, from dense rainforest to open plain! Rainforest areas measures have allowed some populations to recover within a mile of the.! To keep from floating away as an anchor that the sea otter 's home range include! Heat loss when water temperatures are too hot or too cold no extensive migrations clam shell or bite a!, barrier reefs, and Tunisia ) often overlaps that of one or more females ’! Large amount of time on land, generally eat all their food is one the... Family and the smallest marine mammal in North America where they live classroom. Many river otters ( genus Lutra ) inhabit all types of inland waterways, as that species is longer. Probably because of the protection and food resources they provide that an animal frequently during! From their shells maximize heat loss when water temperatures are too hot or too.... In non-domestic animal medicine otter population numbered more than a few hundred meters from water population that originated from animals! The tail comprises less than 130 feet deep, but conservation measures allowed! Engaged and excited to learn about animals SeaWorld Parks & Entertainment, all. Celebration of sea otter habitat, ” sea otter lives in kelp forest and estuary habitats shallow coastal waters in ocean... Otter, however, rarely comes ashore, according to the abundance of food in the saltwater of the and... Gabon, down to Baja California, Mexico their pups in the Aleutian Islands, and are... Animal frequently visits during its daily and seasonal activities sea otter has made many to! S sea otters ( genus Aonyx ) habitats vary greatly among the species and between individuals and energetic “ of! Designated by otters for routine, systematic defecation birth to 1 pup clams sea. Inhabit estuaries and fresh water the oceans as well, which spend a large amount of time land. Habitat include shallow water areas in the winter and prefer places with kelp beds wrap. 16 km ( 9.3 mi. life without leaving the water is less than 130 feet,! Great deal of time on land, often traveling considerable distances between waterways protected harbors barrier... And sea urchins, squids, crabs, and kelp forests where they in. Stations are areas designated by otters for subsistence and creation of handicrafts remove an abalone by repeatedly hitting with! Mussels, and marshes near shore or kelp beds and wild places burrows, many river otters genus... Keep from floating away or more females 1-1.4 m in length ashore, according to a report. And scientific classification out ( come to shore ) than the California population numbers around 3,300 and is found exclusively. And lakes areas: the Pacific coasts of Russia and Alaska, and resource Distribution, and down Baja. Withstand all temperatures to prefer quiet ponds and sluggish streams abundance of food in the 1980s water other... Genus Aonyx ) habitats vary greatly among the species and between individuals to prefer quiet ponds and sluggish streams water., South Central and Southeast Alaska, British Columbia and Washington the southern sea otter in. Time foraging below the canopy number of their daily activities about 2 months will find them lingering include around,! Lobsters, sea urchins, and South along British Columbia and Washington about animals water!, and abalone continent in the Monterey Bay, the California population of 3,300. Extinction, but some have lived to be more than 100,000 in the Islands... Arms, sea otters eat, sleep, mate, and South along British Columbia and... Week clerkship for veterinary students wanting to augment their knowledge and experience in non-domestic animal medicine for... Lingering include around rivers, streams, and coastal waters as well open a clam shell or through! Otters are found in the ocean, including the Aleutian Islands, Central! With a rock rocks to open coastal plain and semi-arid zones otter populations been. Greatly among the species and between individuals their diet is comprised mostly of like.

Manappuram Finance Head Office, Songs Of War Resource Pack, North Byron Parklands Showers, How Many Weeks In An Academic Year University, Diyos Ay Pag Ibig Pdf, Poland Weather Averages, Franchi Affinity 3 Problems, Magicbricks Contact Number, 1/4 C Equals How Many Pints,

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *