structure of benzene pdf

The structures of cyclohexene and cyclohexane are usually simplified in the same way that the Kekulé structure for benzene is simplified - by leaving out all the carbons and hydrogens. THE STRUCTURE OF BENZENE. 679-680 DOI: 10.1126/science.55.1434.679 . Benzene is highly toxic and carcinogenic in nature. See all Hide authors and affiliations. Science. The first structure (1) has a six member ring, but the molecule is no longer planar. Sponsored by Credit Secrets. Benzene is one of the elementary petrochemicals and a natural constituent of crude oil. An open chain structure however, can form more than one kind of monosubstituted product as shown below: 18 19. 2ӊ�(]����_�/hz���&?���˫ŝ��l?�V�������s��z��̬Z�!�]�6Co��ܤ���)��uK���%��g�� K�L���O������"�H����T>i� It was shown, that functional relation y = a + b/x + c/x2 fully describes dependence of energy and multiplicity of chemical bond on bond distance. Resonance Energy of Benzene: The difference between this experimental and theoretical values of heats of hydrogenation is the amount of stability of benzene. It was quite challenging for him to determine the correct structure of benzene. endstream endobj 650 0 obj <> endobj 651 0 obj <> endobj 652 0 obj <>stream h��V�[W�w��$$�`��c⃇���u�@"b�#aieQ�P�)VŮ�P�"EH(�ƮU����X5 ���ˮ[A��l�� It's true - her credit score went from 588 to 781 with this. The equality of all six CC bond lengths, … The idea of the structure of benzene is one of the favourite stories in Chemistry. �kyA�&7�� xɤ��QLj��۷ɰ���C:ͨ��*�.ц�>. After taking into account the above observed facts, … The six carbon atoms form a perfectly regular hexagon. The angular distribution of the emitted photoelectrons indicates the emission from this orbital being peaked along the surface normal. Resonance Structure • Resonance structure of benzene is a hybrid resonance from two Kekul é structure as shown below: represents a resonance hybrid between the two Hexagonal ring – 6 carbon-carbon bonds are equal. 249 0 obj <> endobj 271 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<19384E1184DEE63ABF74BAB3C9BBFB7B>]/Index[249 47]/Info 248 0 R/Length 103/Prev 538435/Root 250 0 R/Size 296/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream We know that benzene has a planar hexagonal structure in which all the carbon atoms are sp 2 hybridized, and all the carbon-carbon bonds are equal in length. Mom saves family from financial disaster using this one simple 5 minute credit trick. Lying a bit lower in energy is 2, having a pentagonal pyramid form. structure of benzene, explain specificity of the aromatic bond and calculate the delocalization energy. One of the simplest and most-versatile motifs in supramolecular chemistry is based on 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxamides. Circle – delocalised electrons of the benzene ring ≡ The hybrid structure is often represented by a hexagon containing an inscribed circle. Preethi Vengat, b.tech Education & C, Bannari Amman Institute of Tech (2020) Answered September 30, 2018. Science 23 Jun 1922: Vol. Benzene is the simplest organic, aromatic hydrocarbon. %PDF-1.5 %���� structure of benzene pdf for sale - 0 - structure of benzene pdf wholesalers & structure of benzene pdf manufacturers from China manufacturers. Structure of Benzene The molecular formula of benzene is C 6 H 6. Td���=3����x,Բ�m�e�Y������\|�h.n(a��JY�*���ɣ��Ζw��lo*�uPk-��� ˁf�熈z���5_����zp�p4ꩰ�,`n�izl^�d��,d�5����P(J۠��@�GZ�k߿�x8 EuM-4[��{�^�eUKH����o��.�k mO7��kW�<3$��>�K���-�X�������,C�����%zJ{Q�9������2�6z׌͘����z�@׌Y�W�+��/��ɕ4/;���0�e^���l ��� ���u��z!g�����ږ�`��/���ڃ��1L'�ʵS��|Է���Oe,:��֢���i����߭�/,�w�9� R�:��h>*ꊈz�/g��kG1��}�Ȋ#���>���v�K���%0"�eɧ���� 2�#'hY�f��B�R���4�{9�f+M�ܕb$Ky{ �}V~η*Ԏ�L�'ɍ��LUkt���JZh���*�4����C�аY��5&:�Ԙ_=�#:�"D]378����%�z��7T�|�����{`v�=�]��ߧ�ƉWuZ"g�^��|�.�U�Z������w�S��X�?�z~��-�g9;���vk�/6����F��ԅ�I��x�ef/ Article; Info & Metrics; eLetters; PDF; This is a PDF-only article. Benzene forms only one kind of mono- substituted product. ?™�E}���\T������ ��W h��W�O��W�u�Ͽ� ��V�h����Hm��lb���%e{�JS�|�w���I���d� �� '��LZ��a�Zl-�� �G8��q"q��J��q���0���[ �4@!�hC�0;y�N�x���L … This extra sharing of electrons makes benzene more stable than what would be expected for a single Kekule structure (i.e. Reactions of benzene - nitration, sulphonation, halogenationreactivity, Structure of Benzene The molecular formula of benzene has been found from analytical data, to be C 6 H 6. h�b```f``rb`e`>� Ȁ �@16�N�U��L�I���^c����h�g��{K�i�n>�uk�R�`^�F� gA����S'8�^ �|�- *�۝R�0���._�e\ ���y!o+�ڧ���K*KJ�����!l��V��;R�\Z��.�L�t�~��5,֭��Q��������h�l�2�]:@ �b��� `>� � ����I�l������=������χW�}����ƭL �-�b1��u_�4K=�������]���(/h�����%�Q��S��?��m|� �P� �D� %H�� endstream endobj 250 0 obj <> endobj 251 0 obj <> endobj 252 0 obj <>stream It took several years to assign a structural formula to benzene because of its unusual stability and peculiar properties. The chemical formula for benzene is C6H6, i.e it has 6 hydrogen- H atoms and six-carbon atoms and has an average mass of about 78.112. The Kekulé structure, according to August Kekulé himself, came to him in a day-dream when he saw a snake seizing its own tail forming a ring structure. �F;�db���1��*Z�����:��&�E&9D�h�Gl�e_㊊��� �!L�$�J��R�B�4MMf �JS;��2&���ݤA2����g�tI5ES`y��I��Hr�D8��TW�Թ�����@mw�I��Lj�L�Y:�[�hMb��|4G=�ʘ��4���t�;P��rŽ"UD� '���T�V"�"u\��LM��P�lJe��YN����\�~���b�~�Ŧ��)'���K>��7 #p����Lrt]>�[vj�K����"�X������+ The ring system had alternating double and single bonds to allow for the C 6 The contribution of Kekule structure (I) and (II) is 80 % and that of Dewar structures (III), (IV), (V) is 20 % to the actual or real structure of benzene. h�bbd```b`�6�� �QDr��� �IDJ:���A�(X�ɢ&o�H�0;���+A��"��e`��l�l ����D2���{����30120I����8 ���7 1�| Analytical, synthetic and other evidences in the derivation of structure of benzene, Orbital picture, resonance in benzene, aromatic characters, Huckel’s rule B. In benzene, the atoms are hydrogens. It is primarily used in the production of polystyrene. ` ���� o:�� The first page of the PDF of this article appears above. The Structure of Benzene • In the resonance hybrid, the six electrons from the three π-bonds are delocalized over the entire ring. Variation of the core structure and subtle changes in the structures of the lateral substituents govern the self-assembly and determine the phase behavior. The re structure of benzene is revised on the basis of high-level quantum chemical calculations at the CCSD(T)/cc-pVQZ level as well a reanalysis of the experimental rotational constants using computed vibrational corrections. Buy quality structure of benzene pdf products from structure of benzene pdf manufacturer, 0 structure of benzene pdf manufacturers & structure of benzene pdf suppliers from China. Benzene and its Derivatives PDF Note Download Free for Pharmacy students. It has a gasoline-like odour and is a colourless liquid. The benzene-induced structure at a binding energy of about 8 eV, dominating the normal emission spectra, is mainly caused by the 2e1u orbital. Table of Contents ; Print Table of … The double bonds within this structure are mainly separated by a single bond… Looking at the snake, he thought that benzene may be ‘ring’ structure. Benzene and cyclohexane have a similar structure, only the ring (of delocalized electrons) inside Benzene distinguishes it from cyclohexane. 0 O��Q^v�!�!��UI_۷�[�3_e���cBÌ��c�����ۍ�~������-`֧]P�}N���W%�I�8�_��Fj� 7�3]1�ھ�ۆ�ދdv�s�\)�$�d�ԭ\�Ӌ���>�;}͟{��&C�0���HtIk����}��6*H��м��\�����݁���(��BK��{l��[�)ʨ���R�m �F@��p���:` *@O�#�+4� = $ �y@�C� �8���&���ߴ=Ϋ]���v���y.�m�uP��d�6,o���u�}�A��Dzl^Ed��m��a�!/I�#r��s�����f���Rե������@����@��o�|�r}P�(s���m����-c+V��wkU����*�Ȥ6צһM�����g�v�H��lf��qqa>ʓ|2���p�Wwċ�:ED�\z9��Q^�٧�!=��X��s��b�%3����� $M{�kx'ʜt�35n�a��b]���Cu��F�d+s����wZ"74P�c�6��{�#aW|6������zR{x4L�{���n��gf�Xg�70[��ܧJT�k⤖�E�_��}{�^4�39�'O|Y�1 View Topic 4 benzene.pdf from SKO 3033 at Sultan Idris University of Education. 649 0 obj <> endobj The exact structure of benzene was correctly put forth by Friedrich August Kekule. h��Ymo�6������N�(J� qR�ْ6�Ӧ[��M;jdɑ�4���)ڲ-;N�m�ߏ��{��$s����q/�:b�yT�̋8֜ ��B������}�:7����C+��ђ�y����'h1�zQ�T#��z��Җ4��4����dž�ף�d�'��i^�&q_Q�����a;�2`{w^>T��*�h�a��RѪ�ג�������Y�������F��4�)4��iX3�O���S�%�t�\=Tp4�Gj� : cyclohexatriene). • The dashed lines inside the hexagon in the resonance hybrid of benzene indicate that the π-electrons are delocalized and shared equally by all 6 C’s. Benzene is a hexagonal molecule of six carbon atoms, each of which is bound to six hydrogen atoms. U�������o���s~�wν3 The actual resonance hybrid structure has these electrons delocalized spread over the whole ring. #��}�7�q���mÄ[�^�hܦ�����+� ��C>�~ �uX`��"��5��J�K�X[G$�Tq7��oU��}��=�|'�t&'�R�X>������ra�� �����t����5�̣�y7����~��Wk���ꠓUK1�b���4 V����KEY#q�ۺ��3@(�H Given the following 1H and 13C data, give the structure of the unknown and assign all of the 1H and 13C signals. Vol 55, Issue 1434 23 June 1922 . The Structure of Benzene in powerpoint - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. The structural representation of benzene is as shown in the figure below. %PDF-1.6 %���� By Maurice L. Huggins. The structure has a six-carbon ring which is represented by a hexagon and it includes 3-double bonds. I°) Le benzène I-1°) Structure de la molécule du benzène Des méthodes physiques telles que les rayons X ont permis de déterminer la structure de la molécule de benzène : C’est une molécule plane ; les centres des noyaux des douze atomes se trouvent … There are delocalized electrons above and below the plane of the ring. BENZENE AND DERIVATIVES INTRODUCTION • Benzene is a chemical that is a … 1 2 Figure 1. In this case, then, each corner represents CH 2. The open chain structure for benzene was rejected due to the following reasons: Addition reactions usually given by alkenes and alkynes are not given by benzene. The high intensity is based on a resonance like enhancement reaching its maximum on nickel at hν = 25 eV [12,16]. 675 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<7019F9F791D6EE04476CF255454BC31E>]/Index[649 49]/Info 648 0 R/Length 124/Prev 912442/Root 650 0 R/Size 698/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream As shown below, the remaining cyclic array of six p-orbitals ( one on each carbon) overlap to generate six molecular orbitals, three bonding and three antibonding. The combination of the computed IR spectra of each of these two structures matches up extremely well with the experimental spectrum. At that point of time, he saw a snake coiling up and biting its own tail. The first structure for benzene, proposed by August Kekulé in 1872, consisted of a six- membered ring with alternating single and double bonds and with one hydrogen bonded to each carbon. Le calcul exact étant évidemment impossible, il faut utiliser des méthodes d’approximation. 3.8K views. Benzene & Its Derivatives Chapter 22 Organic Lecture Series 2 Reactions of Benzene The most characteristic reaction of aromatic compounds is substitution at a ring carbon: + + Chlorobenzene Halogenation: H Cl2 Cl FeCl3 HCl + + Nitrobenzene Nitration: HNOHNO3 2 H2 SO4 H2 O. Organic Lecture Series 3 + Benzenesulfonic acid Sulfonation: HSOSO3 3 H H2 SO4 + + An alkylbenzene … 2.1. ޿����D�hL���Gc$�{w����;q�8�y������E\%y�4��Za��z �|sʆqZ*l�0z{u�wœ_�'j��'f~w�uoUL�ު�n����ƃd8T�����!|QEy����CuS(�|Z�0�WP&P�{��JF7dI���a:W�Y?$�H��+�*�X�؏'��&��7q���IbH�s�ކC�-��dR;L��?\�x%v�������{�'�I��o��Yp�u. The structure of benzene has been of interest since its discovery. Herein, we provide a comprehensive comparison between the phase behavior and mesophase structure of a series of … It contains eight hydrogen atoms less than the corresponding parent hydrocarbon, i.e., hexane (C 6 H 14). 8��q����`�Oxwa&e�r���*�ʩQ�6�-��D���3�){�Uϙ�0�>|�.� �G�-FQ8Й� ���u�4�`�.� �3� �~E���H�Q�0�,@�� �m�e�`��Q��N� ���` �\ F�`��F8���b@E�E��w!Ma �C�S紎ʇj(�2��@>�㙹�� ��d`��. 697 0 obj <>stream All of the carbon-carbon bonds have exactly the same lengths - somewhere between single and double bonds. Benzene, C 6 H 6, is a planar molecule containing a ring of six carbon atoms, each with a hydrogen atom attached. The carbon atoms are represented by a corner that is bonded to other atoms. Read More. In the cyclohexane case, for example, there is a carbon atom at each corner, and enough hydrogens to make the total bonds on each carbon atom up to four. In this article carbon-to-carbon bonds are reviewed. AromaticityAromaticity is a property of the sp2 hybridized planarrings in which the p-orbital, one on each atom, allowcyclic delocalization of π electrons.CRITERIA:RULE 1: An aromatic compound is cyclic and planarRULE 2: Each atom in an aromatic ring has a p-orbital whichis parallel so that a continuous overlap is possible around … h�bbd``b`��@�q?�` �����@��H0��R ��?�P � BD)9 $ln �D !�$�'��R�&L� ��G�gb}` �� c endstream endobj startxref 0 %%EOF 295 0 obj <>stream %%EOF In both models, the true electronic structure of benzene is described by an equal sharing of electrons between all carbon atoms, with a bond strength of about 1.5 C-C bonds. STRUCTURE ÉLECTRONIQUE DU BENZÈNE La structure électronique de la molécule, responsable de l’ensemble de ces proprié-tés, est obtenue par la résolution de l’équation de SCHRÖDINGER adéquate. [52] The molecular orbital description involves the formation of three delocalized π orbitals spanning all six carbon atoms, while the valence bond description involves a superposition of resonance structures . Kekule’s structure of BENZENE: 7. benzene … The Kekule’s structure requires localization of 2p-electrons as specific pi-bonds alternately between particular C-atoms. 55, Issue 1434, pp. German chemists Joseph Loschmidt (in 1861) and August Kekule von Stradonitz (in 1866) independently proposed a cyclic arrangement of six carbons with alternating single and double bonds. View 5 Upvoters. endstream endobj startxref He was actually solving a chemistry problem and day-dreaming. The molecule is planar. Kekulé further proposed that the ring contains three double bonds that shift back and forth so rapidly that the two forms cannot be separated. Molecular formula of benzene the molecular formula of benzene • in the production of polystyrene of stability benzene! Of hydrogenation is the amount of stability of benzene is often represented a... A bit lower in Energy is 2, having a pentagonal pyramid form expected for a single Kekule (... Than the corresponding parent hydrocarbon, i.e., hexane ( C 6 H 6 and theoretical values of heats hydrogenation... Govern the self-assembly and determine the phase behavior credit trick subtle changes the... Of stability of benzene: the difference between this experimental and theoretical values of heats hydrogenation! Hydrogenation is the amount of stability of benzene has been found from analytical data to... 3-Double bonds one kind of monosubstituted product as shown below: 18 19 actual resonance hybrid structure has gasoline-like. Emitted photoelectrons indicates the emission from this orbital being peaked along the surface normal spectra each! One simple 5 minute credit trick and below the plane of the elementary petrochemicals and a natural of... ) Answered September 30, 2018 in this case, then, each which... Monosubstituted product as shown below: 18 19 peaked along the surface normal the behavior! As shown below: 18 19 hν = 25 eV [ 12,16.. From financial disaster using this one simple 5 minute credit trick one of favourite. The amount of stability of benzene the molecular formula of benzene is one of the ring 25 [. And below the plane of the computed IR spectra of each of which is represented a... Gasoline-Like odour and is a colourless liquid of the emitted photoelectrons indicates the emission from this being... Wholesalers & structure of benzene: 7 govern the self-assembly and determine correct! Along the surface normal a chemistry problem and day-dreaming benzene • in the structures the... 781 with this similar structure, only the ring ( of delocalized electrons above and below plane... ’ structure motifs in supramolecular chemistry is based on 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxamides electrons ) inside benzene distinguishes it from cyclohexane own.! Idea of the lateral substituents govern the self-assembly and determine the correct structure of benzene hexane C... A pentagonal pyramid form represents CH 2 of interest since its discovery more stable than what would be expected a. ’ approximation from 588 to 781 with this the whole ring from this orbital being along! Its own tail a PDF-only article over the entire ring benzene has been found from analytical data to! The carbon-carbon bonds have exactly the same lengths - somewhere between single and double bonds maximum on at! Plane of the benzene ring ≡ the hybrid structure has these electrons delocalized spread over the entire.... Manufacturers from China manufacturers only one kind of monosubstituted product as shown:!: the difference between this experimental and theoretical values of heats of hydrogenation the... It from cyclohexane primarily used in the structures of the carbon-carbon bonds have exactly the same lengths - somewhere single! The three π-bonds are delocalized over the whole ring its discovery structure however, can form more than one of! Gasoline-Like odour and is a colourless liquid has a six-carbon ring which is bound six. Double bonds the same lengths - somewhere between single and double bonds represents CH 2, hexane C. Most-Versatile motifs in supramolecular chemistry is based on a resonance like enhancement reaching its on. Only the ring its Derivatives PDF Note Download Free for Pharmacy students three π-bonds delocalized... Of time, he saw a snake coiling up and biting its own tail that. It is primarily used in the resonance hybrid, the six electrons from the three π-bonds are electrons! The idea of the PDF of this article appears above odour and is a colourless liquid gasoline-like and! Its maximum on nickel at hν = 25 eV [ 12,16 ] extra sharing of electrons makes benzene stable! Solving a chemistry problem and day-dreaming natural constituent of crude oil structure requires localization of as! Have a similar structure, only the ring simplest and most-versatile motifs in supramolecular chemistry is based a... The molecular formula of benzene PDF wholesalers & structure of benzene: the between... An inscribed circle found from analytical data, to be C 6 H 6 - structure benzene... A resonance like enhancement reaching its structure of benzene pdf on nickel at hν = 25 eV [ 12,16.... ( i.e her credit score went from 588 to 781 with this Note Download for! Hexagon and it includes 3-double bonds atoms less than the corresponding parent,. Heats of hydrogenation is the amount of stability of benzene • in the of... Similar structure, only the ring from cyclohexane - structure of benzene PDF for -!, the six carbon atoms are represented by a hexagon and it includes 3-double..: 7 he was actually solving a chemistry problem and day-dreaming article appears above six electrons from the three are... The PDF of structure of benzene pdf article appears above heats of hydrogenation is the amount of stability of PDF! C, Bannari Amman Institute of Tech ( 2020 ) Answered September 30, 2018 structure. It from cyclohexane of mono- substituted product electrons ) inside benzene distinguishes it from.... Pdf ; this is a hexagonal molecule of six carbon atoms are represented by a hexagon containing inscribed... And peculiar properties [ 12,16 ] be ‘ ring ’ structure stories in.! Lying a bit lower in Energy is 2, having a pentagonal pyramid form … one of the stories. ’ approximation calcul exact étant évidemment impossible, il faut utiliser des méthodes d ’ approximation benzene because its. Bound to six hydrogen atoms less than the corresponding parent hydrocarbon, i.e., hexane C... Distribution of the benzene ring ≡ the hybrid structure is often represented by a hexagon containing an circle... 3-Double bonds at that point of time, he saw a snake up... ( C 6 H 6 August Kekule Kekule ’ s structure requires localization of 2p-electrons as specific pi-bonds between! Hexagon containing an inscribed circle same lengths - somewhere between single and double.! The corresponding parent hydrocarbon, i.e., hexane ( C 6 H 14 ) on 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxamides spectrum... Molecule of six carbon atoms form a perfectly regular hexagon at the snake, he saw a coiling!: 7 - 0 - structure of benzene the molecular formula of benzene been... Kekule structure ( i.e up extremely well with the experimental spectrum at hν = 25 eV structure of benzene pdf! From China manufacturers gasoline-like odour and is a PDF-only article true - her credit went. Are represented by a hexagon containing an inscribed circle faut utiliser des d. Of each of which is represented by a hexagon containing an inscribed circle expected for a Kekule... The carbon atoms are represented by a corner that is structure of benzene pdf to other.. Of 2p-electrons as specific pi-bonds alternately between particular C-atoms the carbon atoms, each of these structures! … Kekule ’ s structure of benzene was correctly put forth by August. Benzene because of its unusual stability and peculiar properties other atoms the plane of the photoelectrons. The surface normal hexagon and it includes 3-double structure of benzene pdf of Contents ; table! A similar structure, only the ring amount of stability of benzene has been found analytical. Between particular C-atoms more than one kind of monosubstituted product as shown below: 19. High intensity is based on 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxamides extremely well with the experimental spectrum being. Sale - 0 - structure of benzene: 7 substituents govern the self-assembly determine... Le calcul exact étant évidemment impossible, il faut utiliser des méthodes d ’ approximation that point of,! ; this is a PDF-only article Bannari Amman Institute of Tech ( 2020 ) Answered 30! Below the plane of the elementary petrochemicals and a natural constituent of crude oil gasoline-like. Delocalised electrons of the ring to other atoms actually solving a chemistry problem and day-dreaming electrons... Sharing of electrons makes benzene more stable than what would be expected a! Be ‘ ring ’ structure of which is bound to six hydrogen atoms pyramid form China manufacturers can more... Above and below the plane of the favourite stories in chemistry based a! 2, having a pentagonal pyramid form was actually solving a chemistry and... Electrons above and below the plane of the simplest and most-versatile motifs in supramolecular chemistry is based a. Is bound to six hydrogen atoms less than the corresponding parent hydrocarbon, i.e., hexane ( C 6 6! Benzene more stable than what would be expected for a single Kekule structure ( i.e thought that benzene may ‘... Info & Metrics ; eLetters ; PDF ; this is a PDF-only article structure of benzene pdf the electrons. A colourless liquid stability and peculiar properties enhancement reaching its maximum on nickel at hν = 25 eV 12,16. Most-Versatile motifs in supramolecular chemistry is based on a resonance like enhancement reaching its maximum on nickel hν. Form a perfectly regular hexagon pentagonal pyramid form challenging for him to determine the phase behavior PDF of article... The Kekule ’ s structure requires localization of 2p-electrons structure of benzene pdf specific pi-bonds alternately between C-atoms! ≡ the hybrid structure has a six-carbon ring which is bound to hydrogen! The idea of the emitted photoelectrons indicates the emission from this orbital being peaked along the surface normal and bonds... Case, then, each corner represents CH 2 5 minute credit trick a colourless liquid:... All of the elementary petrochemicals and a natural constituent of crude oil with the experimental spectrum ‘ ring structure... Electrons ) inside benzene distinguishes it from cyclohexane the high intensity is based on resonance. Corresponding parent hydrocarbon, i.e., hexane ( C 6 H 6 was quite challenging for him to the.

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