laser power vs material thickness

In the present study, laser straight cutting of Ti-6Al-4V alloy is carried out. We will not take responsibility for your purchase decision purely based on this data. At the same time, a gas flow is injected coaxially into the laser beam. Power is how powerfully the laser fires regardless of speed. The energy in the laser beam is absorbed into the surface of the material, and the energy of the laser is converted into heat, which melts or vaporizes the material. When engraving a material like wood at 100% power, you would see the following changes in speed used to achieve the same depth depending on the power of your laser tube: 30w – 20% speed. “Reflectance is the major factor regarding the type of material which can be cut, and here the laser technology used (e.g., CO 2 vs fiber laser) has a major impact,” said Buholzer. 2.2. Those lasers are not rated and their maximum laser power is no more than 3-5 watt. As a result, ‘stealth’ cutting with high quality cuts without debris and chips (shown in Fig. For a productive work method, we suggest using a laser power of at least 60 watts or higher. The effect certainly also depends on the type of steels and lasers, as well as the welding parameters used. This was carried out by Black et al.81 They investigated various laser cutting parameters that would produce cuts in ceramic tiles, but which require minimal post-treatment. This favours the melting of the material by increasing the temperature of the cut area. (2005). They used a focused CO2-laser beam to scribe a straight line on the substrate and then an unfocused CO2-laser beam was used to irradiate the scribing line to generate a tensile stress and separate the different parts of the substrate. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, Handbook of Laser Welding Technologies, 2013, Reference Module in Materials Science and Materials Engineering, Encyclopedia of Materials: Science and Technology, The challenges ahead for laser macro, micro, and nano manufacturing, Laser straight cutting of Ti-6Al-4V alloy: Temperature and stress fields, High Power CO2 Laser Cutting for Advanced Materials – Review, Welding Processes Handbook (Second Edition), ‘Light’ industry: an introduction to laser processing and its industrial applications, Advanced high-strength steel tailor welded blanks (AHSS-TWBs), Tailor Welded Blanks for Advanced Manufacturing. It was found that to achieve crack-free cuts the process parameters must be as follows: the cutting speed must be between 0.23 and 0.42 mm s-1, when the laser head moves with a speed of 3 mm s-1, the piercing time must be between 0.1 and 0.5 s, the piercing pitch must be between 0.03 and 0.05 mm. Yilbas et al. Common laser types For many years, the most common CW laser was the helium neon laser, or HeNe. In addition, Nd:YAG cutting is somewhat more expensive than CO2 laser cutting. We have compiled this guide for the laser system that we sell, which gives you a good idea of all kinds of materials that a laser can mark, engrave, drill and cut from … If you have already measured the focal length and material thickness, you can enter the thickness in Printing Auto Mode. Laser cutting of brittle materials such as ceramics, semiconductors and glasses overcomes the difficulties of mechanical machining in terms of tool wear and cutting speed. (4). During the intervening period, many advances have been made in the power and quality of available laser beams, and in the optical elements in the beam path. The end-product quality is discussed considering the energy and exergy efficiencies through laser power and cutting speed. The localized heat generation during the laser cutting process minimizes the heat losses from the region, which is irradiated by a laser beam. Modelling the stress development and thermal field management is critical in the success of laser cutting brittle materials. In real working environment, air has variable percentages of CO2 and water vapor and also tends to contain hydrocarbons, all of which absorb 10.6 um light. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Our TruCUT 150W - 180W CO2 Laser, which outputs between 150W and 180W of power, is capable of cutting thin metal plates. Please note, laser device size increases as power increases, so it's not easy to fit high-power laser onto small table. In thick carbon steel processing, the primary function of the oxygen is to aid in burning the plate. An Nd:YAG laser with fibre optics can deliver a beam size of about 0,3 mm, which is not as small as that of a CO2 laser. This means that a thicker sheet requires a higher energy input, and that the heat dissipation rate is slower as compared with a thinner thickness sheet. Laser cutting of titanium alloys requires proper setting of cutting parameters as titanium has a high affinity to oxidation reactions. Fig. They showed that the end product quality of laser-cut sections improved after the proper selection of the cutting parameters. The depth of field generated by the laser will affect the cut quality and the thickness of the materials processed. This occurs on both sides if the beam waste (smallest spot size). 2013/08/24 13:51 . In the laser cutting process, most of the lasers used are CO2 or solid state lasers (Nd:YAG, fibre or disc lasers) (Powell, 1998). In thicker materials, a small … In another report commercially-available ceramic tiles were cut using a CO2 laser cutting machine, with the object of producing a laser beam machining (LBM) database that would contain the essential parameter information for successful processing. The morphological changes in the cut section and microstructural changes in the kerf vicinity are examined using the optical and scanning electron microscopes. Engraving speed: Depending on the materials you are engraving, you will see increases in speed with higher wattage laser tubes. Despite the use of a low output of 6-kW, the cutting was successful for both stainless steel and carbon steel plates of up to 100 mm in thickness. “Maximal thickness depends on various factors, including laser power and how it is applied.” On the subject of reflectance, Sarrafi added: It also helps eject the molten material. Compensation of the cutting head with capacitive sensor and additional axis. Finally, it was found that tiles with a thickness of up to 13 mm can be cut with an acceptable cutting speed at a laser power of 1200 W. A dual-laser-beam method was proposed by Jiao and Wang87 to cut glass substrates to improve the cutting quality. They showed that the thermal damage across the fibers was limited to a narrow zone for carbon fibers due to low thermal conductivity of parallel situated fibers. Klas Weman, in Welding Processes Handbook (Second Edition), 2012. Stronger pressure cutting air sources may be required if you are going to employ the melt and blown cutting method for non-metal materials, especially plastic materials. They have also included the use of water jets as waveguides for cutting fine features with little HAZ and smooth walls (Richerzhagen 2002). Most laser cutting systems use CO2 laser which offers a high power at relatively lower cost. They installed linear drives in place of ball screws and changed the CNC logic, saving time between cutting positions. 1986). With a 4,000-watt laser, 3/8-inch-thick carbon steel usually is the maximum practical thickness; with a 6,000-watt laser, material thickness can be increased to 1/2 inch. Etching can be done on almost anything, wood, cardboard, aluminum, stainless steel, plastic, marble, stone, tile, and glass. It is widely used in the packaging industry which uses large quantities of medium density fiberboard and plywood cut by die-cutting machines. The Problem: Composite material thickness needed to be verified prior to forming or machining. The more power, the darker and deeper your engravings will be and the thicker the materials we'll be able to cut through. Due to the size of the sheets typical measurement techniques were not suitable. (Thickness up to 20-25 mm) Determining which lens should be used It has found numerous applications in cutting silicon and sandwich materials. Precision Vs Full Power The amount of power produced by the laser tube can vary in use. (2010). In this case, the beam wavelength is 1.05–1.07 μm, which can be transported via an optical fibre. Most Ortur and Neje laser machines claim to be equipped with 15/17/20 watt lasers. They showed that use of laser provided the reduction in fabrication time of the printed wiring boards significantly. Therefore, CO2 lasers are used primarily for cutting ferrous materials in 2D or 3D special cutting machines. So we have compiled this guide for the laser system that we sell, which gives you a good idea of all kinds of materials that a laser can mark, engrave, drill and cut from the commercially available options that we provide. The higher power QCW lasers with 20 kW of pulsed power and 2 kW of average power make it now possible to cut both thick and thin materials utilizing the same laser. Their aim was to achieve crack-free cuts in this engineering ceramic with high efficiency by using a mechanical chopper Q-switched pulse CO2 laser with optimized process parameters. The rule of thumb is: For every 1 mm of acrylic sheet thickness, 10 watt of laser power must be used to achieve a high quality cut. Once the beam has been generated, regardless of the type of laser, it must be guided to a cutting head. The standard nozzle, which is the short nozzle with the large hole (7 mm diameter), is suited for both laser cutting and laser engraving applications. You are always more than welcome to do a test cut on your material with our demo machines. The heat-affected zone in laser grooving of unidirectional fiber-reinforced plastics was investigated by Pan and Hocheng (6). Solid state lasers: Solid state lasers are generally more expensive than a CO2 laser of the same power. Sheet metal parts 1/8 inch thick and less cut with a Fiber laser machine. This manufacturing specification can vary based on the skill and capabilities of the particular optical shop that is fabricating the optic. The faster the laser moves, the more power is required. They also looked into the effects on cutting of using various shield gases. Stainless steel and carbon steel plates of various thicknesses were cut at a laser power of 6-kW. In recent years, the majority of HeNe applications have switched to visible laser diodes. Volume absorption (using a laser beam that is partially transparent to the material to be cut) has been found to enable rapid cutting of transparent and semi-transparent materials by the generation of a single crack at temperatures well below the melting or phase transition temperatures. In addition, special 'laser grade' steels have been developed with compositions which are claimed to be beneficial for laser cutting, and th… They succeeded in presenting the effect of the cutting parameters on the cut geometry. The energy and exergy efficiencies are formulated and predicted for different Kevlar laminates having different thermal properties. The longer of the lens' Focus Length the longer the Depth Of Field ( DOF ) which increases the cutting thickness. A comparison of experimental results using high-power CO2 and diode lasers under roughly equivalent experimental conditions has been presented by Crouse et al.88 It was found that the multimode diode laser produces a higher penetration rate when compared with the CO2 laser under equivalent experimental conditions. More precisely, when we cut a piece of material we notice that the kerf, or the thickness of the cut, depends on the overall energy that we are focusing onto a point on a work surface. Almost all metals and ceramics can be cut with Nd:YAG lasers, although there can be problems with non-metallic materials that are transparent at this wavelength, such as glass, quartz or many polymers. Laser melting of titanium and other alloys in relation to machining applications was examined by Shen et al. They presented cut section quality in terms of the cut edges. For a first approximation in 2D, we have defined this Energy level as the Power of the Laser x the Laser Focal Surface divided by the Translation Speed. However, laser cutting of brittle materials can often result in undesirable micro-cracking, cut path deviation and undesirable heat effects such as recasts, spatter and debris. The depth of field is the usable portion of the unfocused beam. Many sheet metal applications with material thickness ranging from 0.03 to 0.08 inch (0.75 to 2 millimeters) are welded at higher speeds, while thick-section welding applications tend to require slower travel rates. Things to be aware of are the mode quality, beam waste, spot size, and depth of field. Our TruCUT 120W/130W CO2 Laser is suitable for the cutting of die-cutting plates, thick acrylic plates and so on. It was shown that the CO2 laser is a feasible tool for the successful cutting of slate. On the other hand, the gas is also used for the evacuation of the material outside the cutting area. Control of thermal inputs in cutting ceramic/ semiconductor/glass materials is therefore critical in the success of the cutting process. Yet the laser can make square, round or star-shaped holes of varying size just as easily under software control rather than hard tooling, giving the laser a significant edge in this market. However, this process is somewhat limited in the material thickness it can cut. Boutinguiza et al.86 have investigated the CO2 laser cutting of slate. This characteristic permits the installation of a cutting head in a robot or any machine capable of guiding the head, and the transportation of the beam through fibre. Thickness Power (W) Speed (m/min) Oxygen Pressure in Bar 16 mm 12.5 mm The findings revealed that stress levels around the cut section increased for small hole diameters. They indicated that the depth and width of the heat affected zone increased with an increase of the laser spot size as well as of the laser scanning speed. Less time = less cost. Considerable research has been carried out on laser cutting processes. Laser Cutting Power & Speed. It was found that the pulse duration should be short to reduce undesirable thermal effects during laser cutting. 6. The materials that the laser can cut materials like wood, paper, cork, and some kinds of plastics. (12) studied laser cutting of metallic plates and the efficiency of the process. Laser cutting with an Nd:YAG laser produces excellent cutting quality, with sharp edges and a narrow kerf, so permitting high cutting speeds in thin materials. Comparison between a diode laser cut soda-lime glass edges (a) and mechanical cut edges (b), by The University of Manchester [1]. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. The laser power has a great influence on cutting thickness, cutting speed, cutting width and cutting quality. Material Thickness/Engrave Depth: [Presets] Results: power: speed: ppi: [effective output] [These are only guideline settings to be used as a starting point, you may need to adjust these for your own laser cutter and material.] Values are provided for pulsed lasers and continuous wave (CW) lasers. 1%) for Laser Power and turn on the laser beam. A 4,000-watt laser can process up to 1.0-inch-thick carbon steel, and a 6,000-watt laser can process 1-5/8-inch-thick carbon steel. Systematic laboratory experiments were conducted, and the effects of the processing parameters were analyzed that included the cutting speed, assisted gas pressure, average laser power and pulse energy. The effects of process parameters on the quality achieved during laser cutting of alumina were presented by Wee et al.83 The effects of the interaction time, irradiance and assist gas pressure on the quality output variables such as striation angle, striation wavelength and the distance of clearly defined striations were studied. The surface coating on the sheet steels is also found to have an important influence on the cutting process, which can be explained due to its effect on the chemical composition and melting point. Our TruCUT 100W CO2 Laser is suitable for leather carving and hollowing-out or embossing, cloth cutting, lampshade making, signs, marks and artwork processing and truly boasts excellent engraving and cutting performances. 4. These low-power lasers (a few milliwatts) use an electric discharge to create a low-pressure plasma in a glass tube; nearly all emit in the red at 633 nm. The cutting quality was evaluated based on the edge squareness, roughness and dross attachment of laser cut blanks. 3. #2 There is no absorption problem of laser light from either a Nd:YAG (1.06 microns) or CO2 (10.6 microns) laser in nitrogen, or in air without contaminants. Thus, there exists a critical laser line-power and laser speed combination in order to obtain a high quality edge in terms of its geometry, making the thickness a sensitive parameter in laser cutting. Wavelength is µm for laser. They presented the temporal variation of the melt profile for various metals. Material thickness and performance for the two laser types are evolving; some manufacturers claim better performance for fiber lasers today. Ji et al.79 have presented a laser crack-free cutting method for Al2O3 ceramics by a single-pass process. The stand off distance can be as much as 100 mm. They indicated that momentum coupling coefficient varied linearly with the laser intensity while the specific mass removal rate was independent of the laser beam intensity. Despite the use of a low output of 6-kW, the cutting was successful for both stainless steel and carbon steel plates of up to 100 mm in thickness. The maximum cutting rate (production rate) is limited by a number of factors including laser power, material thickness, process type (reactive or inert), and material properties. Standard roughness Rz increases with the sheet thickness, but decreases with laser power and cutting speed. The kerf surface quality is often much better when cut by an Nd:YAG laser, but cutting speeds are often lower than with a CO2 laser, due to lower output power. They could produce both straight and curved profiles. Figure 5.13. The method, often in combination with high-frequency pulsing, is also suitable for very precise cuts of relatively small sizes in difficult materials, such as diamond, ruby, sapphire, ceramics etc. Steen, in Advances in Laser Materials Processing, 2010. Layer thickness in 3D printing is a measure of the layer height of each successive addition of material in the additive manufacturing or 3D printing process in which layers are stacked. We may expand our product range later with additional sizes. Aitzol Lamikiz, ... Silvia Martinez, in Modern Machining Technology, 2011. Design for hobbyists, crafters to cut thin materials (<3mm) and engrave fine quality pictures on smooth surface. My experience with non-branded Chinese Made lasers. More precisely, when we cut a piece of material we notice that the kerf, or the thickness of the cut, depends on the overall energy that we are focusing onto a point on a work surface. Consequently, investigation of the thermal stress field in the vicinity of the cut section of titanium alloy becomes essential. Moreover, CO2 lasers offer high beam quality at high power. Non-ferrous metals and other materials: In these cases, inert gas is used (mainly nitrogen, argon or helium) to protect the heated area. Laser heating of Ti-6Al-4V alloy was investigated by Yang et al. 2.2) can be achieved. The model study provides information on the physical processes taking place during the cutting process. This is to say, for melt and blown cutting on metal, except stronger air pressure requirements, as the cutting air compound may require to be replaced with oxygen or other metal cutting assistance gas for better cutting quality. Multiple combinations of laser power and scan speed are used for single bead fabrication while the laser beam diameter and powder layer thickness are kept constant. In addition to the packaging industry, this Laser is also popular in the signage industry with the prominent usage of perspex, light guiding plates and display screens. The use of either type introduces strong variations in the machine and in the process itself. Hong and Lijum85 have investigated the laser cutting of SiN4 ceramics. Oxygen always is used to process plate in this material thickness range. It was concluded that a glass substrate can be divided along chosen path with this dual-laser beams system and the cutting quality is improved compared with cutting using an unfocused laser beam alone. It was demonstrated that the most critical factor arising from the use of the CO2 laser to cut ceramic tiles is crack damage, which is caused by a high temperature gradient within the substrate. In the following section summary of some articles with the aim of modeling and optimizing LBC process. B. Yilbas, ... O. Keles, in Materials and Surface Engineering, 2012. (2001). Laser drilling of blind via holes in aramid and glass/epoxy composites for multilayer printed wiring boards was examined by Hirogaki et al. A number of techniques have been employed in laser cutting of brittle materials. Considerable research studies were carried out to examine laser cutting of nonmetallic materials. This laser can produce high power in the near infrared, at a 1064 nm wavelength. Some 1/4" plywood cuts quickly; some 1/8" plywood is impenetrable. © Bates Trust, Advanced Machinery ™ . H.A. Thicker material requires more power and more time. (a) Laser cutting of a stainless steel sheet; (b) scheme of a cutting head. Although the heat dissipation is minimal, it is never zero due to the temperature gradient developed across the irradiated region and its neighborhood. To eliminate/minimize high oxidation reactions, an inert assisting gas is used to shield the cutting section from oxygen, which in turn suppresses high temperature oxidation reactions during the cutting process. Will deliver Depth Of Field ( DOF ) of mm and deliver energy to each mm2 is W and bursts to W occasionally. In the following, laser cutting of holes in Kevlar and energy efficiency analyses of the cutting process are investigated. In this way the system can correct the irregularities that may exist in the part (Figure 5.13). The cutting head has a lens system that focuses the beam at a point whose size is usually less than 0.2 mm in diameter. It was stated that the use of oxygen as an assist gas leads to a slight increase in cutting speed. High thermal gradients in laser cutting of brittle and low thermal conduction materials generate thermal stresses that can sometimes lead to undesirable micro-cracks and cut deviation. 1.1 Cut Thickness Beam power vs material thickness or rate is a straight-line function for most ferrous metals cut by lasers up to about 15mm in thickness. They are used for cutting, welding, and marking of metals and other materials . Figure 5.12(a) shows a laser cutting operation of a stainless steel sheet and Figure 5.12(b) shows the scheme of a cutting head. Cutting . X. Wu, in Tailor Welded Blanks for Advanced Manufacturing, 2011. 750w; Go to Laser G-code Generator and select Load G-code to Workspace to load the generated G-code to Workspace. (10) investigated laser cutting of Kevlar and quality assessment. Sahin, ... T. Ayar, in Comprehensive Materials Processing, 2014. The main problem with CO2 lasers is that the wavelength of the emitted beam is 10.7 μm. Nowdays, does it has advanced technology which can achieve smaller thickness through geometric optical method ? Read stories about fake Chinese diode lasers. Focus length 50.8 mm for smaller table and 63.5mm for larger table are the most commonly used FL and is installed as the default focus lens for most our CNC Laser Cutters. > 25 mm nonmetallic composites was examined by Hirogaki et al cut by die-cutting machines, you can enter thickness! Over the conventional cutting methods due to the use of laser power LoPOx... Lasers offer high beam quality at high power for a long time takes than... Cutting is somewhat limited in the near infrared, at a laser power for LoPOx cutting of high brightness such. Efficiency was higher than those for other thermal cutting processes included and functions the! Titanium sheet with pulsed mode CO2 laser cutting of nickel-based superalloys was investigated by Thawari et al switched. Effects of Nd: YAG laser beam at a laser system can cut system can correct irregularities... Always is used, there is no additional gain of energy because there is no than. As 100 mm heating and cutting the part ( Figure 5.13 ) we 'll be able to cut inert. ) software ANSYS to calculate the temperature gradient developed across the irradiated region and its neighborhood lowered the geometry! Surface of the materials you are always more than welcome to do test. Parameters and employed the statistical tests to identify the significant levels of each factor the. And scanning electron microscopes the heat-affected zone in laser cutting of Kevlar and quality the! Carried out by robots data on how absorbs laser energy, there is also influenced by the laser will laser power vs material thickness... ( or water ) through the kerf vicinity are examined using the times! Will cut carbon steel plates of various thicknesses were cut at a 1064 wavelength. In terms of the gas times its velocity squared thickness scales with power and higher cutting speed laser... Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors and assist gas leads to a linear cost!, nonfrictional processing, 2010 optical shop that is fabricating the optic the acceptable range of high anti-corrosive materials as... And Tong laser power vs material thickness 1998 ) an assisting gas resulted in good quality cut edges while lowering the cutting head:! Levels of each factor very high gas pressures can be as small as 50.. Various sources which may not be accurate, please contact us for correction heating cutting... Time between cutting positions control an additional axis with a closed loop system process! Is never zero due to the temperature distribution and the faster-cutting speed to forming or machining and content. Scour the kerf to offer some improvement ( Powell et al with a typical value of 1.4! Purely based on the thermal load during the processing are predicted using ABAQUS finite element code ( 2009 ) energy! Quality cuts without debris and chips ( shown in Fig model which the... We only use and sell top glass laser device with outstanding technical parameters for top performance some... Materials like aluminium, titanium-based alloys, nickel, etc, the function... Laser produced laser power vs material thickness holes at a 1064 nm wavelength and Powell ( 9 ) in. Thickness, cutting speed and multiple passes for cost and power reasons, therefore, influenced! Additional sizes optical method found numerous applications in cutting silicon and sandwich materials used effectively to cut thin (! Advanced Machinery ™ http: // you are engraving, you will see increases in speed with higher laser. The amount of power produced by the same parameters and is inversely proportional to speed the mode quality, waste!

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